Nutrition & Feeding

General Nutrition Information

  • Common Feed Ingredients in Poultry Diets (eXtension) HTML
  • Hindgut Function in Laying Hens (Rural Industries Res & Dev Corp, Australia) PDF
  • Impact of Dietary and Environmental Factors on Microbial Communities of the Avian GI Tract (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Intestinal Integrity and the Impact of Losing It (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Introduction to Poultry Nutrition (Ontario Ministry of Ag & Food) HTML
  • Nutrient Requirements of Chickens and Turkeys (University of Missouri) HTML
  • Poultry: Feeds and Nutrition (Mississippi State University) HTML
  • Poultry: General Nutrient Requirements (Government of Saskatchewan) HTML
  • Poultry Husbandry Chapter II: Feeds and Feeding (Canadian Poultry Consultants Ltd) HTML
  • Poultry Nutrition and Feeding (Auburn University) PDF

Feeding Programs

Feeding Broilers for Meat Production

  • A Picture Guide to Chicken Feed Withdrawal (Manitoba Ag & Food) HTML
  • Feed Withdrawal: A Practical Look at its Effect on Intestine Emptying, Contamination and Yield (Manitoba Ag & Food) HTML
  • Successful Broiler Production Depends on a Sound Feeding Program (Mississippi State University Ext) PDF

Feeding Egg-Producing Chickens

  • Application of Non-Feed Removal Methods for Molting Commercial Layers (Illinois Livestock Trial) HTML
  • Comparison of Induced Molting Programs on Production Parameters of Laying Hens (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Feeding the Commercial Egg-Type Laying Hen (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Feeding the Commercial Egg-Type Replacement Pullet (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Practical Problems in Layer and Pullet Nutrition (University of California-Davis) PDF

Feeding Exotic & Companion Birds

  • Avian Nutrition: Trends and Philosophies (Hagen Avicultural Res Institute) HTML
  • Comparing Two Feeding Methods in an Outdoor Aviary (Canadian Parrot Symposium) HTML
  • Nutritional Observations, Hand-Feeding Formulas, and Digestion in Exotic Birds (Hagen Avicultural Res Institute) HTML
  • Nutrition Expert Panel Review: New Rules for Feeding Pet Birds (Feed Management, Feb 1998, Vol 49, No 2) PDF
  • Psittacine Pediatrics: Housing and Feeding of Baby Parrots (Hagen Avicultural Res Institute) HTML
  • Recommended Feeding Methods of Companion Birds (Hagen Avicultural Res Institute) HTML

Feeding Game Birds

  • Feeding Quail (Mississippi State University Ext) PDF / HTML
  • Feeding Bobwhite Quail (North Carolina State Unviersity) HTML

Feeding Ratites

  • Feed Requirements for Emu (Red Oak Farm) HTML
  • Nutrition Guidelines for Ostriches and Emus (Iowa State University) PDF
  • Nutrition of Ratites: Comparison of Emu and Ostrich Requirements (Livestock Library) HTML
  • Ratite Nutrition and Feeding (Virginia Tech) HTML

Feeding the Small Flock

  • Basic Feeding Programs for Small Chicken Flocks (Manitoba Ag & Food) HTML
  • Choice-Feeding of Small Laying Hen Flocks (Manitoba Ag & Food) PDF / HTML
  • Feeding Chickens for Best Health and Performance (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Feeding the Backyard Laying Flock (West Virginia University) PDF
  • Increasing Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Eggs from Small Chicken Flocks (Manitoba Ag & Food) HTML
  • Nutrition For the Backyard Flock (University of Georgia Ext) PDF / HTML
  • Organic Diets for Small Poultry Flocks (Manitoba Ag & Food) HTML
  • Poultry Nutrition Information for the Small Flock (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Principles of Feeding Small Flocks of Chickens at Home (Utah State University) PDF
  • Small Flock Nutrition (University of Maryland Ext) HTML
  • Small Poultry Flock Nutrition (University of Florida) PDF

Feeding Turkeys for Meat Production

  • Betaine and Breast Meat Yield in Turkeys (S. Noll, Multistate Poultry Meeting, May 2002) PDF
  • Feeding for Live Performance and Breast Meat Yield of Toms (S. Noll, Multistate Poultry Meeting, May 2002) PDF
  • Nutrient Requirements of Organic Growing Turkeys (eXtension) HTML

Feeding Waterfowl

  • Duck Nutrition (Cornell University) HTML
  • Duck Nutrition (International Duck Res Coop, Inc) HTML
  • Fueling the Engines: Feeding and Digestion in Waterfowl (Ducks Unlimited) HTML
  • Looking After Call Ducks (Call Duck Association, UK) HTML
  • Nutrient Requirements of Ducks - Chapter 5 in Nutrient Requirements of Ducks (National Academies Press) HTML
  • Nutritional Requirements for Ducks and Geese (Metzer Farms) HTML


General Information

  • Evaluating Feed Components and Finished Feeds (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Sampling: Procedures for Feed (Kansas State University) PDF

Amino Acids

  • Organic Poultry Production: Providing Adequate Methionine (ATTRA) HTML
  • Protein Quality and Amino Acid Digestibility (Illinois Livestock Trial) HTML


  • Evaluation of High Levels of Rice Milling Byproducts in Chicken Layer Diets: Effects on Layer Performance, Egg Quality and Economic Returns (Livestock Res for Rural Dev, Vol 25, #119) HTML
  • Feeding Food By-products to Livestock (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Poultry By-product Meal (Feedipedia) HTML
  • Use of Apple By-products in Poultry Rations of Broiler Chicks in Karachi (University of Karachi) PDF

Competitive Exclusion Products

  • Principles of Competitive Exclusion (Canadian Poultry Consultants Ltd) PDF
  • Use of Competitive Exclusion Products for Poultry (University of California-Davis) HTML

Contaminants in Feed

  • Feeding Fusarium Contaminated Grain to Livestock (Manitoba Ag & Food) HTML
  • Minimizing Alfatoxin in Corn (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Minimizing Microbial Contamination in Feed Mills Producing Poultry Feed (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Mycotoxins in Feed Grains and Ingredients (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Toxicity to Poultry of Common Weed Seeds (University of Florida) PDF
  • Understanding and Coping with Effects of Mycotoxins in Livestock Feed and Forage (North Carolina State University) PDF

Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

  • DDGS: Nutritious and Inexpensive Feed for Poultry ( HTML
  • DDGS User Handbook (U.S. Grains Council) HTML
  • Dried Distillers Grains in Poultry Diets (University of Kentucky) HTML
  • Use of Dry Distillers' Grains With Solubles by Poultry (Purdue University) PDF
  • Ethanol Co-products for Poultry (University of Minnesota) HTML


  • Broiler Performance and Mineral Utilization of Enzyme-Supplemented Defatted Rice Bran Diet During Heat Stress (University of Tennessee) PDF
  • Enzymes for Poultry Feed: Yes or No (University of Georgia) PDF
  • Implications of Enzyme Use in Corn/Sorghum/Soy Poultry Diets on Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Gut Microflora (M. Hrubyand E. E. M. Pierson) PDF
  • Study: Use of Enzymes in Poultry Diets (World Poultry) HTML
  • Use of Enzymes in Corn-soybean Poultry Deits ( HTML


  • A Comparative Study of Fiber Digestion and Subsequent Nutrient Absorption in the Ostrich Versus the Ruminant (University of Nebraska) HTML
  • Fibre Plays a Supporting Role in Poutlry Nutrition (World Poultry) HTML
  • Poultry Response to High Levels of Dietary Fiber Sources Varying in Physical and Checmical Characteristics (J Applied Poultry Res, Vol 21 No 1, 156-174) HTML


  • Flax (University of Kentucky) HTML
  • Including Flaxseed in Organic Poultry Diets (eXtension) HTML
  • Long-Term Effects of Feeding Flaxseed on Performance and Egg Fatty Acid Compositon of Brown and White Hens (Poultry Sci 82:388-394) PDF
  • Producing Omega-3 Enriched Eggs - Incorporating Flax Seed into Laying Hens' Rations (Flax Council of Canada) PDF
  • Use of Flaxseed as a Poultry Feedstuff (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Using Flax in Poultry Diets (eXtension) HTML


  • Bt-Corn: What it is and How it Works (University of Kentucky) HTML
  • Feeding Barley to Swine and Poultry (North Dakota State University) HTML
  • Feeding Broiler Chickens Wheat and Barley Diets Containing Whole, Ground and Pelleted Grain (Poultry Sci 81:995-1003) PDF
  • Feeding Wheat to Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Feeding Whole Grains to Chickens (Maine Organic Farmers & Gardeners Association ) HTML
  • Grains Used in Poultry Diets (University of Kentucky) HTML
  • Performance, Gut Size and Ileal Digesta Viscosity of Broiler Chickens Fed with a Whole Wheat Added Diet and the Diets with Different Wheat Particles (Internatl J Poultry Sci 2(1): 75-82, 2003) PDF / HTML
  • Wheat in Poultry Rations (University of Nebraska) PDF


  • Feeding Field Peas to Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Guide to Feeding Field Peas to Livestock (North Dakota State University) PDF


  • Feeding Fishmeal to Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Fishmeal in Poultry Diets: Understanding the Production of This Valuable Feed Ingredient (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Fishmeal: Understanding Why This Feed Ingredient is so Valuable in Poultry Diets (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Mealworms (New York Worms) HTML
  • Reduction in Dietary Nutrient Density Aids in Utilization of High Protein Cottonseed Meal in Broiler Diets (Internatl J Poultry Sci 1(4): 53-58, 2002) PDF / HTML
  • Using Meat and Bone Meal in Poultry (University of Florida) PDF / HTML

Vitamins & Minerals

  • Soluble Vitamin Supplementation in Poultry (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Trace Mineral Balance in Poultry (WATTAgNet) HTML
  • Trace Minerals for Swine and Poultry (Louisiana State University) HTML
  • Vitamins and Minerals Important to Poultry (The Poultry Site) HTML

Miscellaneous Feed Ingredients

  • Medicinal Plants: A Re-emerging Health Aid (Electronic J Biotech, Vol 2, No 2, 1999) PDF / HTML
  • Molasses - General Considerations (University of Florida) PDF