Layer Management

General Information

  • About the U.S. Egg Industry (American Egg Board) HTML
  • An Initial Analysis of Adoption of Animal Welfare Guidelines on the U.S. Egg Industry (Iowa State University) HTML
  • Basic Husbandry for Layers (Ontario Ministry of Ag & Food) HTML
  • Changing Economy of the Egg Industry (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Commercial Egg Production and Processing (Purdue University) HTML
  • Evaluating Egg Production Hens (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Getting Started in the Egg Business (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Little Known Uses for Eggs (Ag & Agri-Food Canada) HTML
  • Management Requirements for Laying Flocks (Virginia Tech) PDF
  • Process of Egg Formation (Purdue University) PDF
  • Summary of Regulations of the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) Pertaining to Eggs and Egg Container Brand Registration (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • General U.S. Stats: Egg Industry Factsheet (United Egg Producers) HTML

Backyard Flock Management

  • Culling Hens (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Egg Cleaning Procedures for the Household Flock (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Factors Affecting Egg Production in Backyard Chicken Flocks (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Lighting for Small-Scale Flocks (University of Maine) HTML
  • Packing Eggs on the Farm for Direct Sales (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Rearing Chicks and Pullets for the Small Laying Flock (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • The Small Laying Flock (Texas A&M) PDF

Commercial Management

  • Commercial Egg Production and Processing (Purdue University) HTML
  • Disease Problems of Commercial Pullets: Rearing and Laying (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Economics of Commercial Layer House Ventilation (Auburn University) PDF
  • Planning for Commercial Layer Expansion or Renovation (Auburn University) PDF


  • Eggs and Cholesterol (University of Illinois) HTML
  • Food Safety Risk Management in Different Egg Production Systems (Rural Industries Res & Dev Corp, Australia) PDF
  • The Incredible Egg (Ontario Ministry of Ag, Food & Rural Affairs) HTML

Egg Eating

  • Guide to Preventing Egg-Eating in Your Hens (poultryOne) HTML
  • Preventing Hens from Eating Eggs (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Prevention of Egg Eating (Virginia Tech) HTML
  • Six Tips on Breaking Your Egg Eater (BackYard Chickens) HTML

Egg Processing

  • Egg Grading Manual (USDA/AMS) PDF
  • Sale of Shell Eggs to Grocery Stores and Restaurants in Minnesota (Minnesota Dept of Agriculture) HTML
  • Shell Egg Grades and Standards (USDA/AMS) HTML
  • United States Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs - Effective July 20, 2000 (USDA/AMS) PDF
  • Waste Reduction in Egg Processing (North Carolina Dept of Environment & Natural Res) PDF

Egg Size & Quality

  • Concepts of Eggshell Quality (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Egg Quality (University of Florida) PDF
  • Egg Size and Your Small Flock of Laying Hens (Manitoba Agriculture) PDF / HTML
  • Egg Specific Gravity - Designing a Monitoring System (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Enhancing the Early Egg Size and Maintaining Shell Quality in Layers (Alberta Ag, Food & Rural Development) HTML
  • Osteoporosis, Cage Layer Fatigue and Poor Shell Quality: Prevention Rather Than Cure (University of Georgia) PDF
  • Soft, Thin or Missing Egg Shells ( HTML
  • Weak Shelled Eggs and Your Small Flock of Laying Hens (Manitoba Ag) HTML

Feeding Layers

  • Feeding the Commercial Egg-Type Laying Hen (University of Florida) PDF
  • Feeding the Commercial Egg-Type Replacement Pullet (University of Florida) PDF
  • Flax in Animal and Poultry Feed for Better Health (Flax Council of Canada) HTML
  • How to Feed Your Laying and Breeding Hens (Oregon State University) PDF
  • Practical Problems in Layer and Pullet Nutrition (University of California-Davis) PDF

Food Safety

  • Designing a HACCP Plan for Shell Egg Processing Plants (North Carolina State University) PDF
  • Egg Safety Bulletin (Texas A&M) PDF
  • Good Management Practices for Salmonella Risk Reduction in the Production of Table Eggs (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Guidelines for Risk Reduction of Microbial Introduction into Poultry Flocks and Products (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Production of Eggs and Home-Raised, Home-Butchered Broilers and Turkeys (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Salmonella and Eggs (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Salmonella Control and Molting of Egg Laying Flocks - Are They Compatible (University of Florida) PDF / HTML

Heat Stress

  • Avoiding Heat Stress Mortality in Poultry (University of Minnesota) PDF
  • Avoiding Heat Stress Problems for Poultry (University of Illinois) HTML
  • Differential Effects of Heat Stress in Three Strains of Laying Hens (2007 J Applied Poultry Res 16:628-634) PDF
  • Effect of Heat Stress on Ovarian Function of Laying Hens (2007 Poultry Sci 86:1760-1765) PDF
  • Heat Stress in Caged Layers (Ontario Ministry of Ag, Food & Rural Affairs) HTML
  • Heat Stress Strategies for Layers in Hot Climates (WATT AgNet) HTML
  • Hot Weather Management in the Poultry House (Oklahoma State University) PDF


  • Assessment of Lighting Needs by Laying Hens via Preference Tests (Iowa Sate University) PDF
  • Basic Rules for Lighting Programs (Hy-Line) HTML
  • Light for Laying Hens ( HTML
  • Lighting Programs for Replacement Pullets (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Lighting Programs for Table Egg Layers (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Lighting for Small-Scale Flocks (University of Maine) HTML
  • Proper Light Management for Your Home Laying Flock (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Winter Lighting in the Chicken Coop (Nutrena) HTML


  • An Alternative Molting Procedure (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Chickens Moulting ( HTML
  • Comparison of Induced Molting Programs on Production Parameters of Laying Hens (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Evaluation of a Calcium Pre-molt and Low-energy Molt Program: Effects on Laying Hen Behavior, Production, and Physiology Before, During, and After a Fasting or Non-Fasting Molt (Iowa State University) PDF
  • Evaluation of Nonfeed Removal Methods of Molting Programs (University of Illinois) PDF
  • Flock-Friendly Molting Methods - A Progress Report (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • General Molting Recommendations (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Molting, Bird Density, and Animal Welfare (University of Illinois) HTML
  • Molting of Laying Hens (Mississippi State University) HTML
  • Molting - What is it; How to Help Chickens Get Through it (Grit Blogs) HTML

Production Issues

  • Egg Laying and Possible Problems (Tailfeathers) HTML
  • Factors Causing Poor Pigmentation of Brown-Shelled Eggs (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Molting and Other Causes of Feather Loss in Small Poultry Flocks (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Pullets: Alternative Methods to Delay Onset of Lay (Michigan State University) PDF / HTML
  • Why My Hens Stopped Laying (University of California-Davis) PDF

Specialty Products

  • Assessment of Market Opportunities for Omega 3 Eggs (AURI) PDF
  • Designer and Specialty Eggs (University of Florida) PDF
  • Designing Eggs for Better Nutrition (Texas A&M) PDF
  • Designer Eggs: Nutritional and Functional Significance (University of California-Davis) PDF

Spent Hens

  • Management of Spent Hens (J Applied Animal Welfare Sci 2:1, 13-29) PDF
  • Utilization of Spent Hen Meal in Diets for Laying Hens (Internatl J Poultry Sci 1:4, 82-84, 2002) PDF