Health & Diseases

Overview of Poultry Diseases

    • Avian Immune Systems (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Avian Necropsy Techniques (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Bacterial Diseases (Mississippi State University) PDF
    • Bacterial Diseases of Poultry Excluding Respiratory Diseases (Oklahoma State University) PDF
    • Common Poultry Diseases (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Common Poultry Diseases in Small Farm Flocks in Oklahoma (Oklahoma State University) PDF 
    • Diagnosis of Poultry Disease (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML
    • Diseases and Parasites in Poultry (Mississippi State University) HTML
    • Diseases of Poultry (Mississippi State University) PDF
    • Disease Problems of Commercial Pullets: Rearing and Laying (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Eye Disorders of Poultry (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Factors Causing Poor Pigmentation of Brown-Shelled Eggs (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • How to Score Bursa Size in Broiler Chicken Flocks (Manitoba Agriculture and Food) HTML
    • Human Health Concerns Associated with Hatching Poultry (Ohio State University) PDF / HTML
    • Impact of Dietary and Environmental Factors on Microbial Communities of the Avian GI Tract (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Index of Poultry Diseases (University of Reading) HTML
    • Intestinal Integrity and the Impact of Losing It (Alabama Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories) HTML
    • Organization and Use of Serological Monitoring Service for the Poultry Industry - Dissertation: Diploma in Poultry Medicine and Production (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Poultry Disease Diagnosis (Mississippi State University) PDF
    • Poultry Diseases Based on Symptoms (Mississippi State University) HTML
    • Poultry Health Basics (Mississippi State University) HTML
    • Poultry Health Monitoring - Benefits of Computerized Systems (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Poultry Necropsy Basics (Ohio State University) HTML
    • Practical Illustrations of Risk Assessment and Risk Management in the Poultry Industry (British Veterinary Poultry Association) HTML
    • Protozoan Diseases (Mississippi State University) HTML
    • Viral Diseases (Mississippi State University) HTML
    • Wet Litter in Turkeys: Diseases and Interactions (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Zoonotic Diseases - Part I: Bird to Human Transmission - Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Parrot Fever), Salmonellosis (Winged Wisdom, Pet Bird Magazine, May 1998) HTML
    • Zoonotic Diseases - Part II: Bird to Human Transmission - Allergic Alveolitus, Campylobacteriosis, New Castles Disease (Winged Wisdom, Pet Bird Magazine, June 1998) HTML
    • Zoonotic Diseases - Part III: Bird to Human Transmission - Avian Tuberculosis (Winged Wisdom, Pet Bird Magazine, July 1998) HTML

Specific Diseases


  • Ascites (Agriculture, Food & Rurual Development, Alberta) HTML
  • Ascites (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Ascites Syndrome in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Avian Influenza

  • Avian Influenza (College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (USDA) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (USDA-APHIS) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (USGS) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (World Health Organization) HTML
  • Avian Influenza: A Guide for Veterinarians & Companion Animal Owners (Minnesota Dept of Agriculture) PDF
  • Avian Influenza: A Minnesota Cooperative Control Program (University of Minnesota) PDF
  • Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus (World Health Organization) HTML
  • Avian Influenza Basics for Pigeon Owners (University of MInnesota Extension) PDF / HTML
  • Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) (Centers for Disease Control) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease (CIDRAP) HTML
  • Avian Influenza - DNR Tests for Virus in Minnesota (Minnesota Dept of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Avian Influenza - How Will It Affect Me? (eXtension) HTML
  • Avian Influenza: Human Pandemic Concerns (CAST) PDF
  • Avian Influenza in Poultry (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Avian Influenza - Links to Daily Updates (Minnesota Dept of Public Safety) HTML
  • Avian Influenza Prevention in Gamebird and Ratite Facilities (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Avian Influenza Resources (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Disposal of Domestic Birds Infected by Avian Influenza - An Overview of Considerations and Options (US EPA) PDF
  • Information on Avian Influenza (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) HTML
  • Information Resources on Avian Influenza (Animal Welfare Information Center, USDA, ARS, NAL) HTML
  • Minnesota Responds to Avian Influenza (Minnesota Board of Animal Health) HTML
  • Pigeons and Influenza Viruses (University of MInnesota Extension) PDF / HTML
  • Protecting Us from Avian Flu (University of Minnesota) HTML

Blackhead Disease

  • Blackhead (Michigan Dept of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Blackhead Disease in Poults (Miller Hatcheries/Alberta Agriculture) HTML
  • Preventing Blackhead Disease in Turkeys and Game Birds (Kansas State University) PDF


  • Cannibalism by Poultry (University of Nebraska) PDF / HTML
  • Cannibalism in the Small Poultry Flock (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Cannibalism: Prevention and Treatment (Virginia Tech) HTML
  • Causes of Pecking and Cannibalism (Mississippi State University) HTML


  • Cellulitis (Intestinal Health Center for Poultry) HTML
  • Cellulitis (Poultry Med) HTML
  • Cellulitis (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Evolution and Aging of Cellulitis Lesions in Experimentally-infected Broiler Chickens Using a Non-invasive Technique (Poultry Industry Council) PDF
  • Persistence of Cellulitis-associated Escherichia coli DNA Fingerprints in Successive Broiler Chicken Flocks (Vet. Microbiology 75 (2000) 59-71) PDF


  • Chlamydia Psittaci (Avian Services Center, Avian Biotech International) HTML
  • Chlamydiosis in Poultry ( HTML
  • Psittacosis: Technical Information (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) HTML


  • Fowl Cholera (Queensland Government, Australia) HTML
  • Fowl Cholera (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Prevention and Control of Fowl Pox in Backyard Chicken Flocks (University of Florida) PDF / HTML


  • Clostridial Proliferation and Intestinal Instability (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Clostridium Perfringens (Iowa State University) HTML


  • Biological Control of Coccidiosis in Small Poultry Flocks (University of Maine) PDF
  • Coccidiosis (Kansas State University) HTML
  • Coccidiosis in Chickens (Miller Hatcheries) HTML


  • Infectious Coryza (United Peafowl Association) HTML
  • Overview of Infectious Coryza in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Eastern Equine Encephalitis

  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis (New Jersey Department of Health) HTML
  • Questions Regarding Eastern Equine Encephalitis and Horses (Rutgers University) HTML


  • St. Louis Encephalitis -- The Role of Chickens (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Viral Encephalitis: The Role of Birds (University of Florida) PDF


  • Duck Plague - Duck Virus Enteritis (National Wildlife Health Center, USGS) HTML
  • Duck Virus Enteritis (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (North Carolina State University) HTML
  • Turkey Poult Enteritis (Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab) HTML

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV)

  • Infectious Bronchitis Virus: Classical and Variant Avian Strains (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Infectious Bronchitis and its Effect on Egg Production and Egg Quality (University of Florida) PDF / HTML

Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD)

  • Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro) in Commercial Broilers (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Infectious Bursal Disease and IBDV (Ohio State University) HTML

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT)

  • Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis - Chapter 2.3.3 in OIE Terrestrial Manural 2008 (OIE World Organization for Animal Health) PDF
  • Diseases of Poultry: Laryngotracheitis (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Episode of Infectious Laryngotracheitis (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Infectious Laryngotracheitis (Maryland Coop Extension) PDF

Marek's Disease

  • Marek's Disease (Miller Hatcheries) HTML
  • Marek's Disease (Queensland Government, Australia) HTML
  • Marek's Disease in Backyard Chicken Flocks (University of California-Davis) PDF 


  • Avian Mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma Gallisepticum) (Iowa State University) PDF
  • Diseases of Poultry: Mycoplasma (Iowa State University) HTML
  • Infectious Sinusitis in Turkeys (Hybrid) PDF
  • Mycoplasma Gallisepticum - A Continuing Problem in Commercial Poultry (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Mycoplasma Gallisepticum: FAQ (University of Maine) HTML
  • Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Infection of Backyard and Commercial Poultry Operations (Purdue University) HTML

Newcastle Disease / Exotic Newcastle Disease

  • Cracking Down on Newcastle Disease (New Agriculturist On-line) HTML
  • Enfermedad de Newcastle Virulenta - Información para Propietarious de Aves (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Exotic Newcastle Disease (APHIS, USDA) HTML
  • Newcastle Disease in Laying Hen Flocks (Manitoba Agriculture, Food & Rural Initiatives) HTML
  • Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) (Avian Biotech International) HTML
  • Newcastle Disease: What Nebraska Poultry Producers Need to Know (University of Nebraska) HTML


  • A Review of Avian Pneumovirus (Roche Vitamins) PDF
  • Diagnosis, Management and Control of Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Broiler Parent Chickens (Poultry Health Services) PDF


  • Avian Pox (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Avian Pox (USGS) HTML
  • Pox Virus in Poultry - Increased Numbers Over the Summer and Into the Fall Season (Clemson University) PDF 
  • Preventing Avian Pox (University of California-Davis) PDF


  • Diagnosis of Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale (International Journal of Poultry Science) PDF


  • Biosecurity and Vaccination in Eradicating Salmonella Enteritidis (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Commercial Salmonella Enteritidis ELISA Test: Results Arising for its Use in Monitoring for Infection and Response to an Inactivated Vaccine (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Salmonella Control and Molting of Egg Laying Flocks - Are They Compatible? (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Salmonellosis (Parathyroid) - Emu Health (Queensland Government, Australia) HTML

Skeletal Problems

  • Broiler Tip... Leg Problems in Broilers (University of Georgia Coop Extension) PDF
  • Leg Problems in Broilers and Turkeys (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Nutritional Factors That Affect Leg Problems in Broilers and Turkeys (Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews) HTML

Spiking Mortality

  • PEMS and Spiking Mortality of Turkeys (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Spiking Mortality of Chickens (The Poultry Site) HTML

West Nile Virus

  • West Nile (Raptor Center, University of Minnesota) HTML
  • West Nile Encephalitis and Poultry (Pennsylvania State University) PDF
  • West Nile Virus (Minnesota Department of Health) HTML
  • West Nile Virus (Centers for Disease Control) HTML
  • West Nile Virus (Connecticut Ag Experiment Station) PDF
  • West Nile Virus Fact Sheet Index (Ohio State University) HTML
  • West Nile Virus Key Facts (College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota) PDF
  • West Nile Virus: The Latest News (CIDRAP) HTML
  • West Nile Virus: Statistics, Surveillance, and Control (Centers for Disease Control) HTML
  • West Nile Virus: The Twin Cities' Source for Local Information About West Nile Virus (Environmental & Occupational Health, University of Minnesota) HTML
  • What is West Nile Virus? (USGS) HTML

Miscellaneous Diseases

  • Aspergillosis - Emu Health (Queensland Government, Australia) HTML
  • Chicken Anemia Agent (CAA) (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Osteoporosis, Cage Layer Fatigue and Poor Shell Quality: Prevention Rather Than Cure (The Informed Poultry Professional, University of Georgia) PDF
  • Pigeon Canker (University of Florida) PDF / HTML

Disease Prevention

General Information

  • Control of Poultry Disease Outbreaks (University of Missouri) HTML
  • Disease Prevention in Commercial Aviaries (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Improved Aviculture Management May Prevent Candidiasis in Birds (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Poultry Facts: Disease Prevention (West Virginia University) PDF
  • Poultry Health Management for Commercial Poultry (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML
  • Preventative Medicine for Backyard Chickens (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Prevention - A Young Person's Guide to Keeping Animals Safe and Healthy (Ohio State University) PDF
  • Prevention of Poultry Disease (University of Missouri) PDF / HTML
  • Spotting Disease Early (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML


  • Animal Disease Information (World Organization for Animal Health) HTML
  • Backyard Biosecurity: 6 Ways to Prevent Poultry Diseases (USDA) PDF
  • Biosecurity and the Poultry Flock (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Biosecurity at all Levels (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF
  • Biosecurity for Exotic Fowl (Texas A&M) PDF
  • Biosecurity for Live Bird Markets (Massachusetts Dept of Agricultural Resources) PDF
  • Biosecurity for Poultry (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Biosecurity for Poultry Flocks (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Biosecurity for Youth Livestock Exhibitors (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Biosecurity Fundamentals for Extension Personnel (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Biosecurity in the Egg Processing Plant (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Code of Practice for Biosecurity in the Egg Industry (Rural Industries Research & Development Corp, Australia) PDF
  • Disease Prevention Checklist (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Guidelines for Risk Reduction of Microbial Introduction into Poultry Flocks and Products (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • How to Keep Disease Agents on Egg Flats, Palettes or Egg Racks from Infecting Your Flock (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines For Terrestrial Animals (World Organization for Animal Health) HTML
  • National Biosecurity Resource Center for Animal Health Emergencies HTML
  • On-farm Biosecurity: Traffic Control and Sanitation (Ohio State University) PDF / HTML
  • Poultry Facility Biosecurity (Texas A&M) PDF


  • Compatibility of Ionophore Anticoccidials with the Therapeutical Treatments (Alpharma Inc) HTML
  • Food-Animal Production Practices and Drug Use (National Academy Press, 1999) HTML
  • Guidance for Industry - Effectiveness of Anthelmintics: General Recommendations, 2001 (USDA, FDA, Center for Vet Med) PDF
  • Safety of Ionophore Anticoccidials Compatibility with Species (Alpharma Inc) HTML
  • Safety of Chemical Anticoccidials Compatibility with Different Species (Alpharma Inc) HTML

Mosquito Control

  • Mosquitoes (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Mosquitoes of Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML


  • Clean and Mean: Effective Targeting for Disinfectants and Disinfectant Combinations (Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development) HTML
  • Cleaning and Disinfection of Poultry Facilities (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Disinfection in On-farm Biosecurity Procedures (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Hand Sanitation for Visitors and Employees (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • On-farm Biosecurity: Traffic Control and Sanitation (Ohio State University) PDF / HTML
  • Poultry Facts: Sanitation (West Virginia University) PDF
  • Sanitation: Cleaning and Disinfectants (Mississippi State University) HTML
  • Sanitation-Disinfection Basics (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Water Sanitation (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF


  • General Principles of Vaccination (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML
  • How Do Vaccinations Protect Your Birds (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (World Organization for Animal Health) HTML
  • Maternal Antibody Transfer (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF
  • Principles of Vaccination (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF
  • Vaccination of Small Poultry Flocks (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Vaccine Failure in Poultry: Factors to Consider (University of Florida) PDF / HTML