Health & Diseases

Overview of Poultry Diseases

    • Avian Immune Systems (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Avian Necropsy Techniques (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Bacterial Diseases (Mississippi State University) PDF
    • Bacterial Diseases of Poultry Excluding Respiratory Diseases (Oklahoma State University) PDF
    • Common Poultry Diseases (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Common Poultry Diseases in Small Farm Flocks in Oklahoma (Oklahoma State University) PDF 
    • Diagnosis of Poultry Disease (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML
    • Diseases of Chickens (Clemson University) PDF
    • Diseases of Poultry (Mississippi State University) PDF / HTML
    • Disease of Small Poultry Flocks (University of Minnesota) PDF
    • Disease Problems of Commercial Pullets: Rearing and Laying (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Eye Disorders of Poultry (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Factors Causing Poor Pigmentation of Brown-Shelled Eggs (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
    • Impact of Dietary and Environmental Factors on Microbial Communities of the Avian GI Tract (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Intestinal Integrity and the Impact of Losing It (Alabama Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories) HTML
    • Organization and Use of Serological Monitoring Service for the Poultry Industry - Dissertation: Diploma in Poultry Medicine and Production (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Poultry Disease Diagnosis (Mississippi State University) PDF
    • Poultry Health Monitoring - Benefits of Computerized Systems (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Practical Illustrations of Risk Assessment and Risk Management in the Poultry Industry (British Veterinary Poultry Association) HTML
    • Wet Litter in Turkeys: Diseases and Interactions (Poultry Health Services) HTML
    • Zoonotic Diseases - Part I: Bird to Human Transmission - Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Parrot Fever), Salmonellosis (Winged Wisdom, Pet Bird Magazine, May 1998) HTML
    • Zoonotic Diseases - Part II: Bird to Human Transmission - Allergic Alveolitus, Campylobacteriosis, New Castles Disease (Winged Wisdom, Pet Bird Magazine, June 1998) HTML
    • Zoonotic Diseases - Part III: Bird to Human Transmission - Avian Tuberculosis (Winged Wisdom, Pet Bird Magazine, July 1998) HTML

Specific Diseases

Ascites

  • Ascites (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Ascites Syndrome in Meat-Type Chickens (Ontario Ministry of Ag, Food & Rural Affairs) HTML
  • Ascites Syndrome in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Causes of Ascites in Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Feeding to Reduce Ascites in Poultry (WATTAgNet.com) HTML

Avian Influenza

  • Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza (World Health Organization) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (USDA) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (USDA-APHIS) HTML
  • Avian Influenza (USGS) HTML
  • Avian Influenza: A Guide for Veterinarians & Companion Animal Owners (Minnesota Dept of Agriculture) PDF
  • Avian Influenza: A Minnesota Cooperative Control Program (University of Minnesota) PDF
  • Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus (World Health Organization) HTML
  • Avian Influenza Basics for Pigeon Owners (University of Minnesota Extension) PDF / HTML
  • Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease (CIDRAP) HTML
  • Avian Influenza Disease (USDA-APHIS) HTML
  • Avian Influenza - DNR Tests for Virus in Minnesota (Minnesota Dept of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Avian Influenza - How Will It Affect Me? (eXtension) HTML
  • Avian Influenza: Human Pandemic Concerns (CAST) PDF
  • Avian Influenza in Poultry (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Avian Influenza Prevention in Gamebird and Ratite Facilities (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Disposal of Domestic Birds Infected by Avian Influenza - An Overview of Considerations and Options (US EPA) PDF
  • Information on Avian Influenza (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) HTML
  • Minnesota Responds to Avian Influenza (Minnesota Board of Animal Health) HTML
  • Pigeons and Influenza Viruses (University of MInnesota Extension) PDF / HTML
  • Protecting Us from Avian Flu (University of Minnesota) HTML

Blackhead Disease

  • Blackhead (Michigan Dept of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Blackhead Disease in Poults (Miller Hatcheries/Alberta Agriculture) HTML
  • Blackhead Disease in Turkeys (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Infectious Enterohepatitis (Blackhead) (Iowas State University) PDF
  • Preventing Blackhead Disease in Turkeys and Game Birds (Kansas State University) PDF

Cannibalism

  • Cannibalism in Poultry (University of Saskatchewan) HTML
  • Cannibalism in the Small Poultry Flock (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Cannibalism: Prevention and Treatment (Pennsylvania State University) PDF / HTML
  • Cannibalism: Prevention and Treatment (Virginia Tech) HTML
  • Causes of Pecking and Cannibalism (Mississippi State University) HTML
  • Feather Pecking and Cannibalism in Small and Backyard Poultry Flocks (eXtension) HTML

Cellulitis

  • Cellulitis (Poultry Med) HTML
  • Cellulitis (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Clostridial Dermatitis and Cellulitis: An Emerging Disease of Turkeys (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Persistence of Cellulitis-associated Escherichia coli DNA Fingerprints in Successive Broiler Chicken Flocks (Vet. Microbiol. 75 (2000) 59-71) PDF / HTML

Chlamydia

  • Avian Chlamydiosis (Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 2000, 19(2), 396-404) PDF
  • Chlamydia Psittaci (Avian Services Center, Avian Biotech International) HTML
  • Chlamydiosis in Poultry (poultrykeeper.com) HTML
  • Overview of Avian Chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis, Parrot Fever) (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Psittacosis (Illinois State University) HTML
  • Psittacosis (Iowa State University) HTML
  • Psittacosis/Avian Chlamydiosis (Iowa State University) PDF
  • Psittacosis (Avian Chlamydiosis) Fact Sheet (Virginia Tech) HTML
  • Psittacosis: Technical Information (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) HTML

Cholera

  • Facts About Fowl Cholera (South Dakota State University) PDF
  • Fowl Cholera (Cornell University) HTML
  • Fowl Cholera (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Fowl Cholera (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Fowl Cholera (Queensland Government, Australia) HTML
  • Fowl Cholera in Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Overview of Fowl Cholera (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Clostridium

  • Clostridial Proliferation and Intestinal Instability (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Clostridium Perfringens: The Causal Agent of Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry (Doctoral Thesis, Swedish University of Ag Sciences) PDF
  • Keeping Clostridial Enteritis Away from Poultry Flocks (Poultry World) HTML

Coccidiosis

  • Coccidiosis (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Coccidiosis (PoultryHub) HTML
  • Coccidiosis in Chickens (Alberta Agriculture & Forestry ) HTML
  • Coccidiosis in Chickens (University of Arkansas) PDF
  • Coccidiosis in Chickens (University of California) PDF
  • Coccidiosis Information for Small Flock Owners (University of Florida) PDF
  • Coccidiosis in Poultry (Clemson University) PDF
  • Experience with Coccidiosis Vaccine Use in Turkeys (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Overview of Coccidiosis in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Parasite Management for Natural and Organic Poultry: Coccidiosis (ATTRA) PDF / HTML

Coryza

  • Infectious Coryza (Cornell University) HTML
  • Infectious Coryza (PoultryHub) HTML
  • Infectious Coryza in Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Overview of Infectious Coryza in Chickens (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Eastern Equine Encephalitis

  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis (USDA-APHIS) PDF
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis in Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Questions Regarding Eastern Equine Encephalitis and Horses (Rutgers University) HTML

Encephalitis

  • Overview of Viral Encephalitides in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • St. Louis Encephalitis -- The Role of Chickens (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Viral Encephalitis: The Role of Birds (University of Florida) PDF

Enteritis

  • Duck Plague - Duck Virus Enteritis (National Wildlife Health Center, USGS) HTML
  • Duck Virus Enteritis (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Necrotic Enteritis (University of Arkansas) PDF
  • Overview of Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Poult Enteritis and Mortality Syndrome (North Carolina State University) HTML
  • Turkey Poult Enteritis (Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab) HTML

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV)

  • Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 2000, 19(2) 493-508) PDF
  • Effects of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (Arkanasas Strain) on Vaccinated Laying Chickens (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Infectious Bronchitis Virus: Classical and Variant Avian Strains (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Infectious Bronchitis and its Effect on Egg Production and Egg Quality (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Overview of Infectious Bronchitis in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD)

  • Gumbobo Disease ( HTML
  • Infectious Bursal Disease (Washington State University) HTML
  • Infectious Bursal Disease (Gumboro) in Commercial Broilers (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Infectious Bursal Disease (or Gumboro) (PoultryHub) HTML
  • Overview of Infectious Bursal Disease in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT)

  • Avian Infectious Laryngotracheitis - Chapter 2.3.3 of OIE Terrestrial Manual-2008 (OIE World Organization for Animal Health) PDF
  • Diseases of Poultry: Laryngotracheitis (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Episode of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Affecting Mississippi Broiler-Breeders and Broilers in 2002-2003 (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Infectious Laryngotracheitis (Michigan State University) PDF
  • Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT) in Poultry (Alberta Agriculture & Forestry) PDF / HTML
  • Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT): Know the Symptoms and What to do if Your Flock is Affected (Maryland Coop Extension) PDF
  • Overview of Infectious Laryngotracheitis in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Marek's Disease

  • Marek's Disease (Miller Hatcheries) HTML
  • Marek's Disease in Backyard Chicken Flocks (University of California-Davis) PDF 
  • Marek's Disease in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Marek's Disease in Small Flocks (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Marek's Disease Overview for Backyard Poultry Owners (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Recognizing and Preventing Marek's Disease in Small Flocks (University of Maryland) PDF

Mycoplasma

  • Avian Mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma Gallisepticum) (Iowa State University) PDF
  • Diseases of Poultry: Mycoplasma (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (Cornell University) HTML
  • Mycoplasma Gallisepticum - A Continuing Problem in Commercial Poultry (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Mycoplasma Gallisepticum: FAQ (University of Maine) HTML
  • Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Infection of Backyard and Commercial Poultry Operations (Purdue University) HTML
  • Mycoplasma: How to Deal with a Persistent and Uiquitous Pathogen (University of California) PDF
  • Mycoplasma Synoviae Fact Sheet (Washington State University) HTML
  • Mycoplasma: What Is It? (WVU Extension) PDF
  • Recognizing and Preventing Mycoplasm Gallisepticum (MG) Infection in Poultry (University of Maryland) PDF

Newcastle Disease / Exotic Newcastle Disease

  • Cracking Down on Newcastle Disease (New Agriculturist On-line) HTML
  • Enfermedad de Newcastle Virulenta - Información para Propietarious de Aves (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Exotic Newcastle Disease (Clemson University) PDF
  • Exotic Newcastle Disease (Pennsylvania State University) HTML
  • Exotic Newcastle Disease in Caged (Exotic) Birds (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Newcastle Disease (Iowa State University) PDF
  • Newcastle Disease (USDA-ARS) HTML
  • Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) (Avian Biotech International) HTML
  • Newcastle Disease: What Nebraska Poultry Producers Need to Know (University of Nebraska) HTML
  • Pigeons and Exotic Newcastle Disease (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Recommendations to Prevent the Spread of Exotic Newcastle Disease (University of California-Davis) HTML

Pneumovirus

  • Avian Pneumovirus and its Survival in Poultry Litter (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Minnesota Turkeys: Experimental Reproduction of the Disease (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Diagnosis, Management and Control of Avian Pneumovirus Infection in Broiler Parent Chickens (Poultry Health Services, UK) PDF
  • Review of Avian Pneumovirus (Roche Vitamins) PDF
  • Susceptibility of Broiler Chicks to Infection by Avian Pneumovirus of Turkey Origin (University of Minnesota) HTML

Pox

  • Avian Pox (Cornell University) HTML
  • Avian Pox (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) HTML
  • Avian Pox (USGS) HTML
  • Avian Pox in Small Flocks (University of Arkansas) PDF
  • Pox Virus in Poultry - Increased Numbers Over the Summer and Into the Fall Season (Clemson University) PDF 
  • Preventing Avian Pox (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Prevention and Control of Fowl Pox in Backyard Chicken Flocks (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Recognizing and Preventing Avian Pox in Small Flocks (University of Maryland) PDF

Rhinotracheitis

  • Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale: A Review (Avian Pathology, 28:3, 217-227) PDF/ HTML
  • Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale Infection in Commercial Laying-type Chickens (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale Infection in Turkeys: Immunoproplylaxis Studies (University of Minnesota) HTML

Salmonella

  • Biosecurity and Vaccination in Eradicating Salmonella Enteritidis (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Commercial Salmonella Enteritidis ELISA Test: Results Arising for its Use in Monitoring for Infection and Response to an Inactivated Vaccine (Poultry Health Services) HTML
  • Economic Impact of the Salmonella Enteritidis Control Program to the Egg Industry In California (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Genes for Resistance to Salmonella in Poultry (Iowa State Univesity) PDF
  • Good Management Practcies for Salmonella Risk Reduction in the Production of Table Eggs (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • Questions & Answers ABout Salmonella (National Chicken Council) HTML
  • Salmonella Control and Molting of Egg Laying Flocks - Are They Compatible? (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Salmonella on the Farm (Minnesota Dept of Health; UMASH) PDF

Skeletal Problems

  • Broiler Tip... Leg Problems in Broilers (University of Georgia Coop Extension) PDF
  • Infectious Skeletal Disorders in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Leg and Foot Disorders in Domestic Fowl (Pennsylvania State University) PDF / HTML
  • Leg and Foot Disorders in Domestic Fowl (Virginia State University) HTML
  • Leg and Skeletal Problems (PoultryHub) HTML
  • Leg Problems in Broilers and Turkeys (Kansas State University) PDF
  • Nutritional Factors That Affect Leg Problems in Broilers and Turkeys (Avian & Poultry Biology Reviews) HTML
  • Overview of Disorders of the Skeletal System in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Spiking Mortality

  • PEMS and Spiking Mortality of Turkeys (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Poult Enteritis and Mortality Syndrome (North Carolina State University) HTML
  • Spiking Mortality of Chickens (The Poultry Site) HTML

West Nile Virus

  • Farmers and West Nile Virus (Ohio State University Extension) HTML
  • Farmers, Chickens, and West Nile Virus (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Frequently Asked Questions About  Birds and West Nile Virus (Ohio State University Extension) HTML
  • West Nile (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • West Nile Encephalitis and Poultry (Pennsylvania State University) PDF / HTML
  • West Nile Virus (Minnesota Dept of Health) HTML
  • West Nile Virus (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) HTML
  • West Nile Virus (Connecticut Ag Experiment Station) PDF
  • West Nile Virus and Chickens (Kansas State University) PDF
  • West Nile Virus Key Facts (University of Minnesota) PDF
  • West Nile Virus: The Twin Cities' Source for Local Information About West Nile Virus (University of Minnesota) HTML
  • West Nile Virus (WNV) (USGS) HTML

Miscellaneous Diseases

  • Aspergillosis (The Poultry Site) HTML
  • Aspergillosis (USGS) PDF
  • Aspergillosis in Poultry (eXtension) HTML
  • Cage Layer Fatigue (eXtension) HTML
  • Chicken Anaemia Virus Infection (or CAV) (PoultryHub) HTML
  • Chicken Anemia Agent (CAA) (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Hypocalcemia, Sudden Death, Osteoporosis, or Cage Layer Fatigue-Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Overview of Aspergillosis in Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Overview of Chicken Anemia Virus Infection (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML
  • Pigeon Canker (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Rickets and Cage Layer Fatigue (PoultryHub) HTML

Disease Prevention

General Information

  • Control of Poultry Disease Outbreaks (University of Missouri) HTML
  • Disease Prevention in Commercial Aviaries (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Economic Impact of the Salmonella Enteritidis Control Program to the Egg Industry In California (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Improved Aviculture Management May Prevent Candidiasis in Birds (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Poultry Facts: Disease Prevention (West Virginia University) PDF
  • Poultry Health Management for Commercial Poultry (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML
  • Preventative Medicine for Backyard Chickens (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Preventing Avian Pox (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Prevention and Control of Fowl Pox in Backyard Chicken Flocks (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Prevention - A Young Person's Guide to Keeping Animals Safe and Healthy (Ohio State University) PDF
  • Prevention of Poultry Disease (University of Missouri) PDF / HTML
  • Recognizing and Preventing Avian Pox in Small Flocks (University of Maryland) PDF
  • Recognizing and Preventing Marek's Disease in Small Flocks (University of Maryland) PDF
  • Recognizing and Preventing Mycoplasm Gallisepticum (MG) Infection in Poultry (University of Maryland) PDF
  • Recommendations to Prevent the Spread of Exotic Newcastle Disease (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Spotting Disease Early (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML

Biosecurity

  • Animal Disease Information (World Organization for Animal Health) HTML
  • Backyard Biosecurity: 6 Ways to Prevent Poultry Diseases (USDA) PDF
  • Biosecurity and the Poultry Flock (University of Nebraska) PDF
  • Biosecurity at all Levels (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF
  • Biosecurity for Exotic Fowl (Texas A&M) PDF
  • Biosecurity for Live Bird Markets (Massachusetts Dept of Agricultural Resources) PDF
  • Biosecurity for Poultry (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Biosecurity for Poultry Flocks (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Biosecurity for Youth Livestock Exhibitors (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Biosecurity Fundamentals for Extension Personnel (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Biosecurity in the Egg Processing Plant (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Code of Practice for Biosecurity in the Egg Industry (Rural Industries Research & Development Corp, Australia) PDF
  • Disease Prevention Checklist (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • Guidelines for Risk Reduction of Microbial Introduction into Poultry Flocks and Products (University of California-Davis) PDF
  • How to Keep Disease Agents on Egg Flats, Palettes or Egg Racks from Infecting Your Flock (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines For Terrestrial Animals (World Organization for Animal Health) HTML
  • National Biosecurity Resource Center for Animal Health Emergencies HTML
  • On-farm Biosecurity: Traffic Control and Sanitation (Ohio State University) PDF / HTML
  • Poultry Facility Biosecurity (Texas A&M) PDF

Medication

  • Compatibility of Ionophore Anticoccidials with the Therapeutical Treatments (Alpharma Inc) HTML
  • Food-Animal Production Practices and Drug Use (National Academy Press, 1999) HTML
  • Guidance for Industry - Effectiveness of Anthelmintics: General Recommendations, 2001 (USDA, FDA, Center for Vet Med) PDF
  • Safety of Ionophore Anticoccidials Compatibility with Species (Alpharma Inc) HTML
  • Safety of Chemical Anticoccidials Compatibility with Different Species (Alpharma Inc) HTML

Mosquito Control

  • Mosquitoes (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Mosquitoes of Poultry (Merck Veterinary Manual) HTML

Sanitation

  • Clean and Mean: Effective Targeting for Disinfectants and Disinfectant Combinations (Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development) HTML
  • Cleaning and Disinfection of Poultry Facilities (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Disinfection in On-farm Biosecurity Procedures (Ohio State University) HTML
  • Hand Sanitation for Visitors and Employees (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • On-farm Biosecurity: Traffic Control and Sanitation (Ohio State University) PDF / HTML
  • Poultry Facts: Sanitation (West Virginia University) PDF
  • Sanitation: Cleaning and Disinfectants (Mississippi State University) HTML
  • Sanitation-Disinfection Basics (University of California-Davis) HTML
  • Water Sanitation (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF

Vaccination

  • Experience with Coccidiosis Vaccine Use in Turkeys (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • General Principles of Vaccination (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) HTML
  • How Do Vaccinations Protect Your Birds (Mississippi State University) PDF
  • Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (World Organization for Animal Health) HTML
  • Maternal Antibody Transfer (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF
  • Principles of Vaccination (Canadian Poultry Consultants LTD) PDF
  • Production of Safe and Uniform Infectious Bronchitis Vaccines (Auburn University) PDF
  • Vaccination of Small Poultry Flocks (University of Florida) PDF / HTML
  • Vaccine Failure in Poultry: Factors to Consider (University of Florida) PDF / HTML